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These techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle).
Another significant historic event in biochemistry is the discovery of the gene and its role in the transfer of information in the cell.
Sucrose consists of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule joined together.
Another important disaccharide is lactose, consisting of a glucose molecule and a galactose molecule.
This results in lactase deficiency, also called lactose intolerance.
Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has become so successful at explaining living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine to genetics are engaged in biochemical research.